Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108AGING IN THE 21S T CENTURY 78 associated with reduced risk of limitations in activities like cooking and shopping. Race plays a central role in the impact of neighborhood on disability. Brown et al. (2015) show that racial and ethnic differences in SES, stress, perceived discrimination and neighborhood conditions help to explain the higher level of functional limitations experienced by Black men compared to White men. Another study shows that increased neighborhood disorder is associated with lower odds of recovery from mobility lim- itation over two years and influences recovery through barriers to physical activity (Latham and Williams 2015). Other work examines the potential impact of neighborhood quality on health conditions. Information from the HRS on neighborhood char- acteristics in 2002 is used to predict the onset of heart problems, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cancer and arthritis in 2004 (Freedman et al. 2011). Living in more economically disadvan- taged areas predicts the onset of heart problems. Segregated, higher-crime areas increase the risk of developing cancer. Similarly, Wight et al. (2008) study the association of neighborhood characteristics and chronic health conditions in the AHEAD cohort. Accounting for other relevant risks, neighborhood disadvantage is significantly associated with self-rated poor health but not with cardiovascular disease or functional limitations. Beginning in 2006, HRS began asking participants to provide personal evaluations of various qualities of their neighborhood. Using these data, Kim et al. (2013) examine the effect of perceived neighborhood social cohesion on the risk of stroke incidence between 2006 and 2010. Higher perceived neigh- borhood social cohesion is associated with a lower risk of stroke. Some aspects of neighborhoods may even influence mortality. Neighborhood affluence is associated with a lower risk of dying over two years (Wight et al. 2010). Neighborhood characteristics may also influence cognitive functioning of older adults. Older adults living in low-education areas have lower cognitive functioning than those living in high-education areas, even accounting for the effect of personal education (Wight et al. 2006). A related study examines the impact of urban neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and racial/ethnic segregation on cognitive functioning (Aneshensel et al. 2011). Poorer individuals living in economically advantaged urban areas may be especially likely to benefit in terms of cognitive functioning from living in an economically advantaged neighborhood. On the other hand, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is especially harmful to cognitive functioning for those who are poor themselves. The link between the sociodemographic environmental context and the trajectory of cognitive health in older life is complex. Higher Hispanic composition and higher Hispanic-White neighborhood segregation are positively associat- ed with better initial cognitive function but with greater cognitive decline over time (Kovalchik et al. 2015). Ailshire and Crimmins (2013) exam- ine the association between neighborhood air Older adults living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (a measure of air pollution), have worse cognitive function, especially episodic memory.