Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 10833 CHAPTER 1 | WORKING LONGER supports the idea that available time makes a difference. Increasing work hours by 10 hours per week is associated with spending about 30 minutes less per week on cooking at home (Dunn 2015). Both gender and the kind of job we hold seem to matter for weight changes in retirement (Foreman-Hoffman et al. 2008). There is no effect of retirement on weight gain for men, but women who retire are at risk for weight gain. Women of normal weight when they retire and who worked in blue collar jobs are most likely to gain weight over time. Workers who retire from strenuous or physically demanding jobs seem to be at higher risk of weight gain following re- tirement. Taking into account the fact that some weight gain is a normal part of aging, men who retire from physically demanding jobs gain an additional 0.5 to 0.6 units of BMI. But men who retire from sedentary jobs gain only 0.1 unit of BMI (Goldman et al. 2008). Chung et al. (2009a) find that retirement leads to a modest weight gain of 0.24 BMI units overall. Similar to Goldman et al., these research- ers find that people retiring from physically de- manding jobs are more likely to gain weight after retiring. But they also find that those with lower wealth tend to gain weight in retirement. People who were already overweight are more likely to gain weight. Those retiring from physically demanding jobs are less active in retirement, whereas people retiring from a sedentary job actually increase their level of physical activity (Chung et al. 2009b). Kampfen and Maurer (2016) find a positive effect of retirement on physical activity, especially for those with higher levels of education and wealth. Another health behavior that can change with retirement is smoking. The effect could go either way, though. Given widespread laws that ban smoking in public places, retirement could reduce this barrier to smoking. On the other hand, if retirement leads to less stress, those who were smoking as a way to cope with work-relat- ed stress might find it easier to quit smoking. Ayyagari (2016b) studies those who had a history of smoking and finds that retirement increases the probability of taking up smoking again among those who had quit. Retirement and Health: Use It or Lose It? Does retirement lead to a decline in cognitive abilities and physical health? Intellectual stim- ulation may help prevent cognitive decline. And physical activity on the job can help keep us active. Work may serve to keep us cognitively alert, physically active, and socially connected. For example, HRS research finds that some of the potentially negative effects of retirement on physical and mental health seem to be related to lifestyle changes, such as declines in physical activity and social interaction (Dave et al. 2008). Transition to partial employment or to a bridge job appears to be associated with fewer physical declines and better mental health (Zhan et al. 2009). Another HRS study suggests that having a mentally stimulating job is associated with slower cognitive decline later on in retirement (Fisher et al. 2014). Pinpointing the effect of retirement on cog- nitive functioning and health is tricky, however. Work can keep us sharp and active, but it may also be the case that workers who are beginning to experience cognitive or health problems are more likely to leave work. To untangle cause and effect, researchers look for a factor that is related to retirement but not to either health or cognition. Rohwedder and Willis (2010) use variation in public pension systems as that factor Workers who retire from strenuous or physically demanding jobs seem to be at higher risk of weight gain following retirement. Some of the potentially negative effects of retirement on physical and mental health seem to be related to lifestyle changes, such as declines in physical activity and social interaction.