Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108AGING IN THE 21S T CENTURY 22 While women are more likely to stop working than men, there is no racial difference in who works longer. Greater wealth is generally associated with leaving the work force, but those with more education are likely to work longer. The major factor associated with stop- ping work is self-reported poor health. Even a small decline in health status decreases the likelihood of working longer. Despite these differences, those who leave work versus continuing to work at older ages are alike in many other ways (Aaron and Callan 2011). A similar study compares the later life work decisions of men and women using longitudinal HRS data from 1992 through 2004. Both men and women are more likely to remain at work longer if they are younger and healthier, guardians to de- pendent children, more educated, self-employed, and earning a higher hourly wage. Men with spouses who are in good health are less likely to be working, but men with spouses in poor health are more likely to remain in the workforce at older ages (Cahill et al. 2008). Analyses including Early Baby Boomers also show that child and parental caregiving are not major factors in the retirement decisions of either men or women (Cahill et al. 2013). Another study focuses specifically on the question of women’s retirement decisions and caring for grandchildren. Lyu and Burr (2016) find that for women, the arrival of a new grandchild is associated with more than an 8% increase in the chances of retiring. Spouses have a big impact on each other’s retirement decisions. Men aged 70 and older in 1993 with working spouses were nearly three times more likely to be working themselves as men whose spouse was not working (Ozawa and Lum 2005). Other research sheds some light on this finding. Gustman and Steinmeier (2004) use information on how much spouses enjoy spending time with each other to help explain the apparent interdependence of married people’s retirement decisions. For wives, all of the interdependence in spousal retirement rates is ex- plained by whether or not she reports that she would enjoy spending time with her husband in retirement. About half of the inter- dependence for husbands is accounted for by this preference. Other HRS research suggests that it is important to consider the interaction of various factors, showing that women with lower ed- ucation and Black adults in poor health are especially unlikely to work longer (Williamson and McNamara 2001). Unemployment near retirement compounds the challenge. Black, Hispanic, and female older workers are most likely to experience job loss in the years prior to retirement, and this period of unemployment often results in departure from the labor force altogether (Flippen and Tienda 2000). Retirement is a process, often occurring in a series of steps over several years. Paths to Retirement Traditionally, workers transitioned from full- time work to full and permanent re- tirement. Increasingly, retirement is a process, often occurring in a series of steps over several years. Studies using longi- tudinal and cohort data from HRS demonstrate multiple paths to retire- ment, revealing changes over time and between cohorts in how and when people choose to leave the workforce. Some studies demonstrate a path leading from full-time to part-time work to full retirement. Others go from a full-time career job to another shorter duration job to full retire- ment. These intermediate jobs are often referred For women, the arrival of a new grandchild is associated with more than an 8% increase in the chances of retiring.