Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108AGING IN THE 21S T CENTURY 90 compared to 2004 to 2006. While the effect of the recession on employment overall is not differ- ent for those with health-related limitations, increases in job losses over the period of the recession are 30% greater for those with greater underlying risk of disability than for the general HRS population (Altindag et al. 2012). It may be that those with disabilities switched jobs to adapt to work limitations. Decreases in spending are 20% greater for those with disabilities. Another study examines the impact of the recession on the risk of experiencing food insecurity and foregoing medications. The HRS includes a variety of measures intended to evaluate the experiences of those with significant economic need. One question asks, “In the past two years, have you always had enough money to buy the food you need?” Those who answer “no” to this question can be considered as experiencing food insecurity. Another question asks, “In the past two years, have you ended up taking less medication than is prescribed… because of the cost?” In the 2010 wave of the HRS, participants are asked if the housing crisis affected them or their family. Those who owned their homes and still owed money to a mortgage lender are asked if they had ever fallen more than two months behind on mortgage payments in the past two years. Unemployment and the participant’s own (or a family member’s) mortgage delinquency is associated with experiencing food insecurity or foregone medications (Burgard et al. 2013). Compared to those who are working, those who became unemployed are more than twice as likely to experience food insecurity between 2008 and 2010, and are almost five times more likely to have foregone medication because of the cost. Others examine the possible impact of the Great Recession on an individual’s use of pre- ventative health care. Manski et al. (2012) find that a 50% or more decrease in household income during the Great Recession led older adults to reduce their use of dental care. One important source of help during hard times can be family. Researchers have long recog- nized that financial help, or transfers, between family members might act as a kind of insurance against the risk of income shortfalls associat- ed with job loss or other financial problems. Recessionary pressures could cause household transfers to increase or decrease. Family members may have greater need, but the resources of those who might want to help could be less. In 2009, 30.4% of those in the original HRS cohort who were aged 67 to 77 in 2008 had given a transfer of $500 or more to grown children, relatives or friends in the past 12 months (Cox and Way 2011). Only 3.4% received such a transfer. Those receiving a transfer were more likely to be unemployed, single and non-White. To evaluate the effect of the recession, they divide the sample into those who said they were affected by the Great Recession “a lot,” “a little,” and “not at all.” Those affected by the recession a lot were wealthier and had higher incomes. Interestingly, this group also has the highest rates of both giving and receiving. Despite their own wealth losses, older parents increased their financial help to adult children and others. This help seems to go to those who need it most, such as the recently unemployed. HRS participants are 34% more likely to make a financial transfer if they have a family member who is two or more months behind on their mortgage payment. Compared to those who are working, those who became unemployed are more than twice as likely to experience food insecurity between 2008 and 2010, and are almost five times more likely to have foregone medication because of the cost. HRS participants are 34% more likely to make a financial transfer if they have a family member who is two or more months behind on their mortgage payment.